Investor glossary

ADAM: The particle physics CERN spin-off, in Geneva, founded in 2007 and acquired by Advanced Oncotherapy in 2013.

Beam Transfer Lines:Transports the proton beam from the end of the LIGHT accelerator to each treatment room via specially designed lines equipped with dipole (two opposing) and quadrupole (two perpendicular sets of opposing) magnets used to steer and focus the beam.

CCLs: Coupled Cavity LINACs. CCLs are a series of up to 15 higher energy accelerating modules, which will accelerate the proton beam up to a maximum energy of 230 MeV.

CERN: The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (French: Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire). CERN is a European research organisation whose purpose is to conduct some of the most important physics and engineering experiments worldwide. Established in 1954, the organisation is based in Switzerland (Geneva), straddles the Swiss/French border and has 22 European member states. The term CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory, which employs over 2,500 full-time employees and 750 Fellows, hosting 13,000 visiting scientists and engineers, representing universities and research facilities from over 100 nations around the world.

Cyclotron: A type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the centre along a spiral path as their energy increases. The first cyclotron was built in the early 1930's.

Gantry: Rotating mechanism in a treatment room carrying the beam transfer line and other beam delivery apparatus, like the ionisation chamber and scanning nozzle, facilitating treatment from multiple angles.

Ionisation chamber: Detects and records ionisation events from the proton beam on a pulse by pulse basis, measuring their exact location, spot size/shape and dose, to ensure accurate treatment and patient safety.

LIGHT: LIGHT is an acronym for Advanced Oncotherapy's LINAC Image Guided Hadron Technology - the next generation of particle therapy system that is radically different in its design, being the only linear proton accelerator for medical use. LIGHT is designed to offer clinical and cost advantages offer legacy and current proton therapy systems.

LINAC: A linear particle accelerator. LINACs have many applications: they generate X-rays and high energy electrons for medicinal purposes in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), serve as particle injectors for higher-energy accelerators and are used to achieve the highest kinetic energy for light particles (electrons and positrons) in particle physics research. A LINAC subjects charged particles or ions to accelerating forces, via a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.

Nozzle: Final element of proton accelerator and beam transfer lines that delivers therapeutic dose to patient. Capable of pencil beam scanning for precise tumour targeting.

Patient Treatment System: Overall system responsible for the computation, delivery, and management of a proton therapy treatment plan. It comprises individual sub-systems, such as imaging, patient positioning, room control, etc..

Proton: A proton is a positively charged particle, with a mass of one atomic mass unit, found within the atomic nucleus. Protons were discovered by Ernest Rutherford in experiments conducted between the years 1911 and 1919. Experiments done at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrated that protons are made from other sub-atomic particles, such as quarks.

Proton Source: The proton source is a small bottle of hydrogen gas. Strong electric fields ‘strip’ the electrons from the hydrogen atoms, thereby leaving the protons.

RFQ: Radio-Frequency Quadrupole. This core unit receives protons from the proton source. It then accelerates and focuses a beam of protons up to energies of 5 MeV.

SCDTL: Side Coupled Drift Tube LINACs or lower energy accelerating modules, situated between the RFQ and the CCLs. Four SCDTLs will accelerate the proton beam up to 37MeV.

Synchrocyclotron: A particular type of cyclical particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the guiding magnetic field is time-dependent, being synchronised to a particle beam of increasing kinetic energy.

Synchrotron: A particle accelerator, also circular in construction, in which protons remain on a fixed, circular orbit. The frequency of the accelerating RF field and strength of the magnetic field both increase in a synchronised manner as protons are accelerated.

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